Interaction of Modified (K,Na)NbO3 Ceramics with Ag-Containing Electrodes
Morozov, MI; Bäurer, M; Hoffmann, MJ
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, 2011 Band 94, Heft 10, S. 3591-3595, DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2011.04607.x
Interaction between modified (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics and metallic silver has been experimentally studied to simulate effects of using Ag-containing electrode pastes in multilayer actuators with alkali-based ferroelectric layers. The solubility limit of silver added as an excess component is found to vary in the range of 0.8-2.5 mol% depending on composition and stoichiometry of the ceramics. Inhomogeneous distribution of the residual undissolved silver across the thickness of a single ceramic layer between the co-fired Ag-Pd electrodes is evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The overall effect of Ag as excess component on temperature of the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition is found different from the known effect of Ag as alkali substituent.