Carbo-PM: Process simulation the carbonitriding of powder metallurgical steels

M.Sc. James Damon


The thermochemical procedure carbonitriding is applied as heat treatment method for enhancing the wear resistance and fatigue properties. Common structural components that are surface hardened are transmission gears in the automotive sector. On the other side, powder metallurgical parts are readily used for their near-net shape and advantageous cost for series production. By experimental investigations and the simulative modelling of the dominating mechanisms, advices shall be given on an optimized heat treament strategy with respect to tuning load bearability and a resulting potential lightweit design.


Development, verification und validation of a two-step simulation model:

  • Carbonitriding-process-simulation in dependency of process parameters with output data for the second simulation
  • Thermomechanical Finite-Element-Simulation to predict residual stress and microstructural evolution


  • Processsimulation of carbonitriding in dependency of porosity, temperature and alloying elements
  • Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams in dependency of nitrogen and carbon content
  • Thermomechanical charakterization of phase specific strength values
  • Finite-Element-Varianten-Calculation for numerical optimization of the residual stress profile
  • Durability tests on optimized samples
Spannungs-Woehlerkurve carbonitrierter pulvermetallurgischer Bauteile in Abhängigkeit der Dichte damon
Stress-woehler curve of carbonitrided powder metallurgical components as a function of density
Martensitisches Gefüge mit Restaustenit - Klemmätzung damon
Martensitic structure with retained austenite - Klemm1-Etchant
Martensitisch-bainitische Mikrostruktur damon
Martensitic-bainitic microstructure
residual stresses damon
Residual stresses after carbonitriding
bain damon
Bainitic microstructure