In the framework of the research of the group "Production and Component Behaviour" the interactions between production processes, component state and component behaviour at mechanical loading are investigated. The goal of the investigations is to adjust the production process in such a way that an optimal component condition is achieved. The production processes considered are available either in the laboratories of production techniques of IAM-WK or within cooperation with institutes of production sciences. They are subdivided into the main groups of production processes according to DIN as follows:


  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Casting


  • High Speed Cutting
  • Micromachining, Microerosion
  • Laser ablation

Chaning materials properties

  • Hardening and tempering of steels
  • Case hardening of steels
  • Inductive heat treatment
  • Laser beam hardening
  • Shot peening
  • Deep rolling

An essential focus of the work of the department " Production and Component Behavior" is the characterization of production-related component and material states. For this purpose, the central laboratories of Materialography and X-Ray Laboratory at IAM-WK are used to gain an insight into the microstructure, the residual stress state and defect structures.

In addition, facilities of the heat treatment laboratory and the laboratories for mechanical testing are used to determine the stability of the surface layer conditions under thermal, quasi-static, cyclic and combined loads. Furthermore, in the laboratories for mechanical testing, the effects of production-related component states on the strength, in particular the fatigue strength, of metallic and ceramic materials are investigated together with the department "Fatigue Strength".

An additional important main subject of the research of the section "Production and Component Behaviour" is the Simulation of the generation of production induced component states at different production steps. Here, different Finite-Element-Programs (Numerical Simulation) are used to describe especially thermo-mechanically coupled processes, if necessary including phase transformations. The necessary input data are determined experimentally (Laboratory of production techniques).

heat treatment mühl
Heat Treatment

Heat treatment from the main group "Changing material properties" includes processes or process chains for thermal, thermo-chemical and thermo-mechanical treatment of workpieces. The component properties, which are important in many applications, are adjusted by specific heating and cooling phases and the resulting phase transformations via the microstructure composition, the residual stress state and the hardness. In heat treatment, a fundamental distinction is made between processes that cause a radical structural transformation and processes that only cause a transformation on the surface of a workpiece. The first-mentioned processes include annealing and hardening, i.e. thermal processes. The second-mentioned processes count as diffusion and coating processes as well as thermochemical processes. The thermochemical surface hardening processes are mainly characterised in series production by a significant increase in surface hardness and lifetime at low unit costs. On the one hand, it is intended to achieve high surface layer hardness in order to minimize the wear. On the other hand, the microstructure and residual stress depth profiles are specifically adjusted, which usually leads to an extension of the durability. The current research focus is the optimization of heat treatment processes for components that are difficult to access. The adjustment of mixed microstructures to improve the mechanical properties is another important aspect. The goal is to improve fatigue properties compared to the conventional quenching and tempering processes by adjusting different microstructure components.

fub klumpp
Mechanical Surface Treatment

Mechanical surface treatment comprises a number of processes from the main manufacturing group "Modification of material properties", which are used to improve the component behaviour under operational loads. Mechanical surface treatments include, for example, shot peening, deep rolling, machine hammer peening, and some other processes that are used in customized industrial applications. The mechanical surface treatment of a component causes plastic deformation of its surface layer, resulting in local work hardening and the formation of residual compressive stresses. In particular, the processes deep rolling and machine hammer peening can also be used to smooth and structure surfaces due to their deterministic nature. A combination of smooth surface, work hardening and residual compressive stresses is particularly advantageous for improving the service life properties in the fatigue stress frequently encountered in mechanical, automotive and aircraft engineering. Structured surfaces, such as bionic ones, can also be created to optimize wear behavior. The focus of the research work in the department "Manufacturing and Component Behavior" is on the new and further development of processes, the identification of the relationships between process parameters, surface layer characteristics and component behavior, as well as numerical process simulation and modeling for the prediction of surface layer properties and component behavior. Furthermore, we deal with thermomechanical surface treatments, such as shot peening at elevated temperature or machine hammer peening under cryogenic conditions. Also in the context of additive manufacturing, mechanical surface treatments are used as final processes or processes switched within the build-up to optimize surface layer and component properties. This illustrates the intensive interdependence of the issues considered within the department "Production and component behaviour".

slm chuan
Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) is characterized, in comparison to conventional manufacturing processes, by the layer-wise build-up of the three-dimensional shape of the component directly from the CAD geometry. Basic materials are metal powder, metal or polymer filaments as well as resins and inks which are consolidated by energy input or chemical cross-linking. The main energy sources used today are laser or electron beams and electrically or inductively heated extrusion heads. Due to the direct production of the component without geometry-bound tools or moulds, additive manufacturing plays a pioneering role, especially in the field of advanced manufacturing. The continuous digitalization and automation of the process chain, the products with high design complexity as well as the possibility of function integration enable additive manufacturing to be used more and more intensively as an innovative technology in various applications. Due to the layered build-up with a specific exposure or deposition strategy of the base material, additive manufactured components not only have a characteristic microstructure but also process-related defects (pores, voids, cracks). The knowledge of the underlying causes in connection with the process control as well as the effect on component properties and component behaviour is fundamental for the application of additively manufactured structural components. At the same time, the highly localised process zone (e.g. in the melt pool or during filament extrusion) offers the possibility of controlling the microstructure and defect structures in a targeted manner. This requires precise control of the temperature history and the exposure/deposition strategy from the melt pool via the individual layer to the entire component. Due to these complex dependencies in the process-structure-property relationships, especially the reproducibility and testing of additively manufactured components is still a largely open field of research.

simu iam-wk
Material Modelling and Process Simulation
ct iam-wk
Non-destructive Material Characterization


Soft sensor approach based on magnetic Barkhausen noise by means of the forming process punch-hole-rolling.
Mühl, F.; Knoll, M.; Khabou, M.; Dietrich, S.; Groche, P.; Schulze, V.
2021. Advances in industrial and manufacturing engineering, 2, Art.-Nr. 100039. doi:10.1016/j.aime.2021.100039
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Surface Layer Conditions after Carbonitriding of Powder Metallurgical Steels. Part 1: Diffusion in Components of Graded Porosity.
Damon, J. M.; Surm, H.; Saddei, P.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2021. HTM - journal of heat treatment and materials, 76 (1), 36–57. doi:10.1515/htm-2020-0003
Origin of non-uniform plasticity in a high-strength Al-Mn-Sc based alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion.
Bayoumy, D.; Kwak, K.; Boll, T.; Dietrich, S.; Schliephake, D.; Huang, J.; Yi, J.; Takashima, K.; Wu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, A.
2021. Journal of materials science & technology. doi:10.1016/j.jmst.2021.06.042
Dual-Laser PBF-LB Processing of a High-Performance Maraging Tool Steel FeNiCoMoVTiAl.
Graf, G.; Nouri, N.; Dietrich, S.; Zanger, F.; Schulze, V.
2021. Materials, 14 (15), Art.-Nr.: 4251. doi:10.3390/ma14154251
Influence of Cold Rotary Swaging on Microstructure and Uniaxial Mechanical Behavior in Alloy 718.
Klumpp, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Seils, S.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2021. Metallurgical and materials transactions / A, 52, 4331–4341. doi:10.1007/s11661-021-06371-w
High-cycle fatigue and surface layer stability of case-hardened PM-steels with graded porosity.
Damon, J. M.; Jung, E.; Zürn, M.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2021. Powder metallurgy, 1–11. doi:10.1080/00325899.2021.1901027
Comparative Study of the Tempering Behavior of Different Martensitic Steels by Means of In-Situ Diffractometry and Dilatometry.
Hunkel, M.; Dong, J.; Epp, J.; Kaiser, D.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.; Rajaei, A.; Hallstedt, B.; Broeckmann, C.
2020. Materials, 13 (22), Art.-Nr.: 5058. doi:10.3390/ma13225058
Microstructure, mechanical behaviour and strengthening mechanisms in Hastelloy X manufactured by electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion.
Karapuzha, A. S.; Fraser, D.; Schliephake, D.; Dietrich, S.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, X.; Huang, A.
2020. Journal of alloys and compounds, Art.-Nr.: 158034. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.158034
Intensive processing optimization for achieving strong and ductile Al-Mn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy produced by selective laser melting.
Bayoumy, D.; Schliephake, D.; Dietrich, S.; Wu, X. H.; Zhu, Y. M.; Huang, A. J.
2020. Materials and design, 198, Art.Nr. 109317. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109317
Simulation of induction hardening: Simulative sensitivity analysis with respect to material parameters and the surface layer state.
Mühl, F.; Damon, J.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2020. Computational materials science, 184, Art. Nr.: 109916. doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109916
Tailored bainitic-martensitic microstructures by means of inductive surface hardening for AISI4140.
Mühl, F.; Jarms, J.; Kaiser, D.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2020. Materials and design, 195, Art.Nr. 108964. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108964
Experimental investigation and finite-element modeling of the short-time induction quench-and-temper process of AISI 4140.
Kaiser, D.; Damon, J.; Mühl, F.; de Graaff, B.; Kiefer, D.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2020. Journal of materials processing technology, 279, Article no: 116485. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116485
SLM-Topo - Prozessspezifische Topologieoptimierungsmethode für im Selektiven Laserschmelzen gefertigte Leichtbaustrukturen.
Holoch, J.; Czink, S.; Spadinger, M.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.; Albers, A.
2020. Industrie 4.0 Management, 36 (4), 45
Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Polymer Samples using a Piezo Controlled Injection Molding Unit and Fused Filament Fabrication compared with a Conventional Injection Molding Process.
Pinter, P.; Baumann, S.; Lohr, C.; Heuer, A.; Englert, L.; Weidenmann, K. A.
2020. 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018; The University of Texas in Austin, United States; 13 August 2018 through 15 August 2018, 2219–2227, Univ. of Texas
Non-destructive characterization of additively manufactured components using X-ray micro-computed tomography.
Dietrich, S.; Englert, L.; Pinter, P.
2020. 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018; The University of Texas in Austin; United States; 13 August 2018 through 15 August 2018, 241–250, Univ. of Texas
Design, fabrication and validation of an improved coil for induction dilatometry.
Kaiser, D.; Torres-Velasquez, D.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2020. Thermochimica acta, 689, Art.Nr. 178612. doi:10.1016/j.tca.2020.178612
Laboratory X-ray tomography for metal additive manufacturing: Round robin test.
du Plessis, A.; le Roux, S. G.; Waller, J.; Sperling, P.; Achilles, N.; Beerlink, A.; Métayer, J.-F.; Sinico, M.; Probst, G.; Dewulf, W.; Bittner, F.; Endres, H.-J.; Willner, M.; Drégelyi-Kiss, Á.; Zikmund, T.; Laznovsky, J.; Kaiser, J.; Pinter, P.; Dietrich, S.; Lopez, E.; Fitzek, O.; Konrad, P.
2019. Additive manufacturing, 30, Art.-Nr. 100837. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2019.100837
In situ observation of hydride nucleation and selective growth in magnesium thin-films with environmental transmission electron microscopy.
Hamm, M.; Bongers, M. D.; Roddatis, V.; Dietrich, S.; Lang, K.-H.; Pundt, A.
2019. International journal of hydrogen energy, 44 (60), 32112–32123. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.10.057
Process porosity and mechanical performance of fused filament fabricated 316L stainless steel.
Damon, J.; Dietrich, S.; Gorantla, S.; Popp, U.; Okolo, B.; Schulze, V.
2019. Rapid prototyping journal, 25 (7), 1319–1327. doi:10.1108/RPJ-01-2019-0002
Orientation Dependent Fatigue Performance and Mechanisms of Selective Laser Melted Maraging Steel X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5.
Damon, J.; Hanemann, T.; Dietrich, S.; Graf, G.; Lang, K.-H.; Schulze, V.
2019. International journal of fatigue. doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.06.025
Process Development and Impact of Intrinsic Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Performance of Selective Laser Melted AISI 4140.
Damon, J.; Koch, R.; Kaiser, D.; Graf, G.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2019. Additive manufacturing, 28, 275–284. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2019.05.012
In-situ alloying of AlSi10Mg+Si using Selective Laser Melting to control the coefficient of thermal expansion.
Hanemann, T.; Carter, L. N.; Habschied, M.; Adkins, N. J. E.; Attallah, M. M.; Heilmaier, M.
2019. Journal of alloys and compounds, 795, 8–18. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.04.260
Experimental and Simulative Studies on Residual Stress Formation for Laser-Beam Surface Hardening.
Kiefer, D.; Schüssler, P.; Mühl, F.; Gibmeier, J.
2019. HTM - journal of heat treatment and materials, 74 (1), 23–35. doi:10.3139/105.110374
Optimization-based procedure for the determination of the constitutive model coefficients used in machining simulations.
Cheng, W.; Outeiro, J.; Costes, J.-P.; M’Saoubi, R.; Karaouni, H.; Dietrich, S.; Marcon, B.; Rosa, P.
2019. Procedia CIRP, 82, 374–378. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2019.04.057
Influence of anisotropy of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg parts on chip formation during orthogonal cutting.
Segebade, E.; Gerstenmeyer, M.; Dietrich, S.; Zanger, F.; Schulze, V.
2019. Procedia CIRP, 82, 113–118. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2019.04.043
Internal Quenching: Optimale Wärmebehandlung für schwer zugängliche Bauteilbereiche.
Muehl, F.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2019. HTM - journal of heat treatment and materials, 74 (3), 191–201. doi:10.3139/105.110382
SLM-Topo – A topology optimization method for additive manufacturing of lightweight design structures using the selective laser melting process.
Albers, A.; Holoch, J.; Dietrich, S.; Spadinger, M.
2018. Exploring the Design Freedom of Additive Manufacturing through Simulation, Helsinki, FIN, December 10-11, 2018, 62–63
Investigation of the precipitation kinetics and microstructure evolution of martensitic AISI 4140 steel during tempering with high heating rates.
Kaiser, D.; de Graaff, B.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2018. (F. Delaunois, V. Vitry & F. Roudet, Eds.)Metallurgical research & technology, 115 (4), Art. Nr.: 404. doi:10.1051/metal/2018026
A Comparative Study of Kinetic Models Regarding Bainitic Transformation Behavior in Carburized Case Hardening Steel 20MnCr5.
Damon, J.; Mühl, F.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2018. Metallurgical and materials transactions / A, 1–14. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-5004-6
Influence of work-hardening on fatigue crack growth, effective threshold and crack opening behavior in the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718.
Klumpp, A.; Maier, S.; Chen, H.; Fotouhi, M.; Schneider, R.; Dietrich, S.; Lang, K.-H.; Schulze, V.
2018. International journal of fatigue, 116, 257–267. doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.06.033
Process dependent porosity and the influence of shot peening on porosity morphology regarding selective laser melted AlSi10Mg parts.
Damon, J.; Dietrich, S.; Vollert, F.; Gibmeier, J.; Schulze, V.
2018. Additive manufacturing, 20, 77–89. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2018.01.001
Surface strengthening of AISI 4140 by cavitation peening.
Klumpp, A.; Lienert, F.; Dietrich, S.; Soyama, H.; Schulze, V.
2017. ICSP13 : 13th International Conference on Shot Peening : 18-21 September 2017, Montréal, Canada., 441–446, Polytechnique Montréal
Influence of conventional and cryogenic piezo peening on bending fatigue strength of hardened bearing steel AISI 52100.
Klumpp, A.; Tamam, M.; Vollert, F.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2017. ICSP13 : 13th International Conference on Shot Peening : 18-21 September 2017, Montréal, Canada, 435–440, Montreal
Micron‐Sized Pored Membranes Based on Polyvinylidene Difluoride Hexafluoropropylene Prepared by Phase Inversion Techniques.
Hofmann, A.; Thißen, E.; Migeot Matthias; Bohn, N.; Dietrich, S.; Hanemann, T.
2017. Polymers, 9 (10), 489/1–12. doi:10.3390/polym9100489
Rigidity and damage evolution of long fibre reinforced polypropylene made by direct processing route (LFT-D).
Weidenmann, K. A.; Dietrich, S.; Grigo, M.; Elsner, P.
2017. 21st Symposium on Composites, 2017; Bremen; Germany; 5 July 2017 through 7 July 2017. Ed.: A. S. Herrmann, 3–8, Trans Tech Publications. doi:10.4028/
Influence of shot peening on the mechanical properties of bulk amorphous Vitreloy 105*.
Grell, D.; Gibmeier, J.; Dietrich, S.; Silze, F.; Böhme, L.; Schulze, V.; Kühn, U.; Kerscher, E.
2017. Surface engineering, 33 (9), 721–730. doi:10.1080/02670844.2017.1282712
Residual Stress States After Piezo Peening Treatment at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures Predicted by FEM Using Suitable Material Models.
Klumpp, A.; Tamam, M.; Lienert, F.; Dietrich, S.; Gibmeier, J.; Schulze, V.
2016. Materials research proceedings, 175–180. doi:10.21741/9781945291173-30
Performance and Properties of an Additive Manufactured Coil for Inductive Heat Treatment in the MHz Range.
Habschied, M.; Dietrich, S.; Heussen, D.; Schulze, V.
2016. HTM - journal of heat treatment and materials, 71 (5), 212–217. doi:10.3139/105.110294
Residual Stresses after Piezo Peening Treatment predicted by FEM Simulation.
Klumpp, A.; Lienert, F.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2015. Proceedings : 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering 2015, Bremen, Germany, 23 - 25 September 2015 / eds. H.-W. Zoch, Th. Lübben ; organised by IWT, 105–115, IWT
Interpenetrating Freeze Cast Composites: Correlation between Structural and Mechanical Characteristics.
Merzkirch, M.; Pinter, P.; Dietrich, S.; Weidenmann, K. A.
2015. 20th Symposium on Composites, Vienna, Austria, July 1-3. Ed.: Ch. Edtmaier, 109–116, Trans Tech Publications. doi:10.4028/
Dependence of the local heat transfer coefficient on temperature and surface roughness in quenching steel parts in high efficiency quenching oil.
Moch, K.; Dietrich, S.; Schulze, V.
2015. Heat treatment and surface engineering: from tradition to innovation : European Conference on Heat Treatment 2015 & 22nd IFHTSE congress ; Venice (Italy), 20 - 22 May 2015, CD-ROM, AIM
Numerical Simulation of Micropeening of quenched and tempered AISI 4140.
Erz, A.; Klumpp, A.; Hoffmeister, J.; Schulze, V.
2014. ICSP12 : proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Shot Peening : Goslar, Germany, September 15-18, 2014 / editor Lothar Wagner, Chairman of ICSP-12, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Germany, 353–358, Lothar Wagner
Mechanical Surface Treatments.
Klumpp, A.; Hoffmeister, J.; Schulze, V.
2014. ICSP12 : proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Shot Peening : Goslar, Germany, September 15-18, 2014 / editor Lothar Wagner, Chairman of ICSP-12, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Germany, 12–24, Lothar Wagner