3D Atome Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography (APT) allows three-dimensional imaging of a tip-shaped specimen, on which it can determine the chemical composition on the atomic scale. Typical APT specimens are sharp needles with apex diameters of about 100 nm or less. To this tip a high voltage is applied so that the surface atoms experience a field that is almost high enough to evaporate them from the surface. An additionally applied high-frequency voltage or laser pulse leads to evaporation of single ions, which are then detected on a 2D detector. This time-resolved and position-sensitive detector analyses the type of the evaporated ions by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. To avoid lateral movement of tip atoms, the tip has to be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures. Combining the detector information, the specimen can be reconstructed three-dimensionally with almost atomic resolution. Fields of applications include e.g. metals and semiconductors.

Sketch of the LEAP working principle
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Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP 4000X HR)
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Laser Assisted Wide Angle Tomographic Atom Probe (LAWATAP)


Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP 4000X HR)

  • UV-laser or voltage pulsing
  • Reflectron for enhanced mass resolution

Laser Assisted Wide Angle Tomographic Atom Probe (LAWATAP)

  • Three different laser wavelengths or voltage pulsing
  • Field ion microscopy with He or Ne available


  • Sample require a SEM compatible sample size for FIB preparation or electropolishing
  • Organic materials are challenging and can only be accepted in special cases
  • The sample will be prepared as a sharp needle with a diameter of 20 nm to 300 nm


At KNMFi, a wide variety of research topics is covered. These include alloy design, high temperature composites, intermetallic phases, additive manufacturing, ceramics, high temperature oxidation and corrosion, strengthening mechanisms, high entropy alloys, precipitation processes, phase transformations, hydrogen storage, thin film systems, battery materials, measurement of proteins, superconductors and others. However, KNMFi directs its focus on high temperature materials, including their corrosion resistance.


In the frame of a cooperation it is possible to request instrument time from the Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMFi) beantragt werden.

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A selection of topics investigated at KNMF during the last years. The picture shows the LEAP 4000 X HR. Dots represent individual atoms.
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Y-Ti-Cr-O-reiche Cluster in einem austenitischen ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-Stahl. Die Matrixatome sind ausgeblendet.


One-step sputtering of MoSSe metastable phase as thin film and predicted thermodynamic stability by computational methods
López-Galán, O. A.; Boll, T.; Nogan, J.; Chassaing, D.; Welle, A.; Heilmaier, M.; Ramos, M.
2024. Scientific Reports, 14 (1), Art-Nr.: 7104. doi:10.1038/s41598-024-57243-3
Precipitation and reverted austenite formation in maraging 350 steel: competition or cooperation?
Feitosa, A. L. M.; Ribamar, G. G.; Escobar, J.; Sonkusare, R.; Boll, T.; Coury, F.; Ávila, J.; Oliveira, J. P.; Padilha, A. F.
2024. Acta Materialia, Art.-Nr.: 119865. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2024.119865
High Entropy Alloys and Compositionally Complex Alloys for Extreme Application Conditions
Kauffmann, A.
2024, January 24. Seminar des Institut für Werkstofftechnik der Universität Kassel (2024), Kassel, Germany, January 24, 2024
Oxidation Behavior and Outward Diffusion of Al Along Oxide Grain Boundaries of FeCrAl Alloys Overdoped with Zr and Hf
Daradkeh, S. I.; Recalde, O.; Mousa, M. S.; Sobola, D.; Boll, T.
2024. High Temperature Corrosion of Materials, 101, 41–59. doi:10.1007/s11085-023-10204-z
CrN–NbN nanolayered coatings for enhanced accident tolerant fuels in BWR
Fazi, A.; Sattari, M.; Strach, M.; Boll, T.; Stiller, K.; Andrén, H.-O.; Adorno Lopes, D.; Thuvander, M.
2023. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 586, Art.-Nr.: 154681. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2023.154681
Phase transformation pathways in a Ti-5.9Cu alloy modified with Fe and Al
Klein, T.; Zhang, D.; Staufer, E.; Boll, T.; Schneider-Broeskamp, C.; Edtmaier, C.; Schmitz-Niederau, M.; Horky, J.; Qiu, D.; Easton, M.
2023. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 27, 4978–4985. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.11.014
Solute misfit and solute interaction effects on strengthening: A case study in AuNi
Yin, B.; Li, L.; Drescher, S.; Seils, S.; Nag, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Curtin, W. A.
2023. Acta Materialia, 257, Art.-Nr.: 119118. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2023.119118
Nano-alloying and nano-chemistry of the immiscible elements Fe and Cu in a FeSc–Cu nanoglass
Singh, S. P.; Chellali, M. R.; Boll, T.; Gleiter, H.; Hahn, H.
2023. Materials Advances, 4 (12), 2604–2611. doi:10.1039/d3ma00167a
Research data for 10.1002/adem.202201441
Eusterholz, M. K.; Boll, T.; Ott, V.; Stüber, M.; Lu, Y.; Gebauer, J.; Ulrich, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2023, March 20. doi:10.5445/IR/1000156942
Additively manufactured equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy: Precipitation-induced heterogeneity by mechano-chemical coupling
Taheriniya, S.; Choi, N.; Yang, S.; Sonkusare, R.; Yu, J. H.; Lee, J.-S.; Rösner, H.; Peterlechner, M.; Boll, T.; Gammer, C.; Hahn, H.; Divinski, S. V.; Wilde, G.
2023. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 938, Article no: 168514. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.168514
Effect of interference laser treatment on the surface region homogeneity of a biomedical β -Ti alloy
Kuczyńska-Zemła, D.; Kwaśniak, P.; Sotniczuk, A.; Boll, T.; Chassaing, D.; Bazarnik, P.; Wieciński, P.; Pisarek, M.; Ostrowski, R.; Garbacz, H.
2023. Applied Surface Science, 614, Art.-Nr.: : 156211. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2022.156211
Deformation mechanisms in Mo-based alloys evaluated by modelling of solid solution strengthening
Winkens, G.; Kauffmann, A.; Herrmann, J. K.; Czerny, A. K.; Obert, S.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Baruffi, C.; Rao, Y.; Curtin, W. A.; Schwaiger, R.; Heilmaier, M.
2023. FEMS Euromat (2023), Frankfurt am Main, Germany, September 3–7, 2023
Effective Platform Heating for Laser Powder Bed Fusion of an Al-Mn-Sc-Based Alloy
Bayoumy, D.; Boll, T.; Karapuzha, A. S.; Wu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, A.
2023. Materials, 16 (24), Art.-Nr.: 7586. doi:10.3390/ma16247586
An Expanded Model for the Pressure Effect in Metal Dusting of Mn-Containing Alloy 600 Based on Advanced Scale Characterization
Galetz, M. C.; Schlereth, C.; White, E. M. H.; Boll, T.; Bik, M.; Sitarz, M.; Chen, W.-T.; Gleeson, B.
2023. High Temperature Corrosion of Materials, 100, 541–555. doi:10.1007/s11085-023-10201-2
Softening by spinodal decomposition in Au–Cu–Ni–Pd–Pt high-entropy alloys
Drescher, S.; Seils, S.; Pohl, D.; Rellinghaus, B.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.; Freudenberger, J.
2023. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 887, Art.-Nr.: 145772. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2023.145772
Thermoelectric and Structural Properties of Transparent Sb-Doped ZnO Thin Films Sputtered in a Confocal Geometry
Faria, H. F.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Boll, T.; Tavares, C. J.
2023. Coatings, 13 (4), Art.-Nr.: 735. doi:10.3390/coatings13040735
The influence of lattice misfit on screw and edge dislocation-controlled solid solution strengthening in Mo-Ti alloys
Winkens, G.; Kauffmann, A.; Herrmann, J.; Czerny, A. K.; Obert, S.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Baruffi, C.; Rao, Y.; Curtin, W. A.; Schwaiger, R.; Heilmaier, M.
2023. Communications Materials, 4 (1), 26. doi:10.1038/s43246-023-00353-8
Determining the Electronic Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of MoS₂/MoSe₂ Type‐I Heterojunction by DFT and the Landauer Approach
López-Galán, O. A.; Perez, I.; Nogan, J.; Ramos, M.
2023. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 10 (11), Art.-Nr.: 2202339. doi:10.1002/admi.202202339
The Piezoresponse in WO₃ Thin Films Due to N₂-Filled Nanovoids Enrichment by Atom Probe Tomography
Pineda-Domínguez, P. M.; Boll, T.; Nogan, J.; Heilmaier, M.; Hurtado-Macías, A.; Ramos, M.
2023. Materials, 16 (4), Art.-Nr.: 1387. doi:10.3390/ma16041387
Nanoscale oxide formation at α‐Al₂O₃–Nb interfaces
Eusterholz, M. K.; Boll, T.; Ott, V.; Stüber, M.; Lu, Y.; Gebauer, J.; Ulrich, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2023. Advanced Engineering Materials, 25 (14), Art.-Nr.: 2201441. doi:10.1002/adem.202201441
The effect of Bi doping on the thermal conductivity of ZnO and ZnO:Al thin films
Correia, F. C.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Ferreira, A.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goñi, A. R.; Boll, T.; Mendes, A.; Tavares, C. J.
2023. Vacuum, 207, Art.-Nr.: 111572. doi:10.1016/j.vacuum.2022.111572
Directed energy deposition of γ/γ’ Co-Al-W superalloys
Yoo, B.; Jung, C.; Ryou, K.; Choi, W. S.; Haußmann, L.; Yang, S.; Boll, T.; Neumeier, S.; Choi, P.-P.
2022. Additive Manufacturing, 60 (Part B), Art.-Nr.: 103287. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2022.103287
Tempering of an additively manufactured microsegregated hot-work tool steel: A high-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction study
Fonseca, E. B.; Escobar, J. D.; Gabriel, A. H. G.; Ribamar, G. G.; Boll, T.; Lopes, É. S. N.
2022. Additive Manufacturing, 55, Art.Nr. 102812. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2022.102812
Role of atomic hydrogen supply on the onset of CO methanation over La–Ni based hydrogen storage alloys studied by in-situ approach
Sawahara, K.; Yatagai, K.; Boll, T.; Pundt, A.; Gemma, R.
2022. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47 (44), 19051–19061. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.04.089
On the complex intermetallics in an Al-Mn-Sc based alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion
Bayoumy, D.; Boll, T.; Schliephake, D.; Wu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, A.
2022. Journal of alloys and compounds, 901, Art.Nr.: 163571. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.163571
Origin of non-uniform plasticity in a high-strength Al-Mn-Sc based alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion
Bayoumy, D.; Kwak, K.; Boll, T.; Dietrich, S.; Schliephake, D.; Huang, J.; Yi, J.; Takashima, K.; Wu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, A.
2022. Journal of materials science & technology, 103, 121–133. doi:10.1016/j.jmst.2021.06.042
Chemical characterization of Mg0.25Mn0.75-H(D) nanocomposites by Atom Probe Tomography (APT)
Gemma, R.; Lu, Y.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Asano, K.
2022. Journal of alloys and compounds, 896, Article no: 163015. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.163015
Texture Evolution During Hot Compression of CoCuFeMnNi Complex Concentrated Alloy Using Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Simulations
Sonkusare, R.; Biswas, K.; Gan, W.; Brokmeier, H. G.; Gurao, N. P.
2022. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 75, 3061–3066. doi:10.1007/s12666-022-02689-0
Coarse‐Grained Refractory Composite Castables Based on Alumina and Niobium
Zienert, T.; Endler, D.; Hubálková, J.; Gehre, P.; Eusterholz, M.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.; Günay, G.; Weidner, A.; Biermann, H.; Kraft, B.; Wagner, S.; Aneziris, C. G.
2022. Advanced Engineering Materials, 24 (8), Art.-Nr.: 2200296. doi:10.1002/adem.202200296
In Situ Experiments: Paving Ways for Rapid Development of Structural Metallic Materials for a Sustainable Future
Sahu, V. K.; Sonkusare, R.; Biswas, K.; Gurao, N. P.
2022. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 102, 173–210. doi:10.1007/s41745-022-00292-2
High‐temperature ternary oxide phases in Ta/Nb‐Alumina composite materials
Eusterholz, M. K.; Boll, T.; Gebauer, J.; Weidner, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Franke, P.; Seifert, H.-J.; Biermann, H.; Aneziris, C.; Heilmaier, M.
2022. Advanced Engineering Materials, 24 (8), Art.-Nr.: 2200161. doi:10.1002/adem.202200161
Correction to: The electronic states of ITO–MoS: Experiment and theory
López‑Galán, O. A.; Ramos, M.; Nogan, J.; Ávila‑García, A.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.
2022. MRS communications, 12 (2), 283–283. doi:10.1557/s43579-022-00151-2
The electronic states of ITO–MoS₂: Experiment and theory
López-Galán, O. A.; Ramos, M.; Nogan, J.; Ávila-García, A.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.
2022. MRS communications, 12, 137–144. doi:10.1557/s43579-021-00126-9
Microstructure and mechanical properties of high-Mn-ODS steels
Seils, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Delis, W.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.
2021. Materials science and engineering / A, 825, Art.-Nr. 141859. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2021.141859
High entropy alloy nanocomposites produced by high pressure torsion
Taheriniya, S.; Davani, F. A.; Hilke, S.; Hepp, M.; Gadelmeier, C.; Chellali, M. R.; Boll, T.; Rösner, H.; Peterlechner, M.; Gammer, C.; Divinski, S. V.; Butz, B.; Glatzel, U.; Hahn, H.; Wilde, G.
2021. Acta Materialia, 208, Art.-Nr.: 116714. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2021.116714
Vertical continuous compound casting of copper aluminum bilayer rods
Greß, T.; Glück Nardi, V.; Schmid, S.; Hoyer, J.; Rizaiev, Y.; Boll, T.; Seils, S.; Tonn, B.; Volk, W.
2021. Journal of materials processing technology, 288, Art.-Nr.: 116854. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116854
On aliovalent cations control of α-alumina growth on doped and undoped NiAl
Boll, T.; Babic, V.; Panas, I.; Bäcke, O.; Stiller, K.
2021. Acta Materialia, 210, Art.-Nr.: 116809. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2021.116809
The High-Solution Design of Magnesium Alloys
Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.; Cheng, X.; Chen, T.; Jiang, B.; Li, D.; Tang, A.; Boll, T.; Pan, F.
2021. Magnesium Technology 2021. Ed.: V. M. Miller, 27–31, Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-65528-0_5
Influence of carbon on the mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution of CoCrFeMnNi processed by high pressure torsion
Lu, Y.; Mazilkin, A.; Boll, T.; Stepanov, N.; Zherebtzov, S.; Salishchev, G.; Ódor, É.; Ungar, T.; Lavernia, E.; Hahn, H.; Ivanisenko, Y.
2021. Materialia, 16, Art.-Nr.: 101059. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2021.101059
Microstructural and Chemical Constitution of the Oxide Scale formed on a Pesting-Resistant Mo-Si-Ti Alloy
Obert, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Chen, H.; Anton, R.; Heilmaier, M.
2021. Corrosion science, 178, Art.-Nr. 109081. doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2020.109081
High temperature strength retention of Cu/Nb nanolaminates through dynamic strain ageing
Liu, Z.; Snel, J.; Boll, T.; Wang, J. Y.; Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M.; LLorca, J.
2021. Materials science and engineering / A, 799, Article no: 140117. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2020.140117
Temperature dependent strengthening contributions in austenitic and ferritic ODS steels
Seils, S.; Kauffmann, A.; Hinrichs, F.; Schliephake, D.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.
2020. Materials science and engineering / A, 786, Article: 139452. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2020.139452
Microstructural properties and peritectic reactions in a binary Co–Sn alloy by means of scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography
Khushaim, M.; Alahmari, F.; Kattan, N.; Chassaing, D.; Boll, T.
2020. Materials Research Express, 7 (8), Art.Nr. 086508. doi:10.1088/2053-1591/abad04
Crystallographic ordering in a series of Al-containing refractory high entropy alloys Ta-Nb-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al
Chen, H.; Kauffmann, A.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Liebscher, C. H.; Harding, I.; Kumar, K. S.; Szabo, D. V.; Schlabach, S.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Müller, F.; Gorr, B.; Christ, H.-J.; Heilmaier, M.
2019. Acta materialia, 176, 123–133. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2019.07.001
Strengthening in solid solutions of the system Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Pt
Thiel, F.; Bollnow, C.; Freudenberger, J.; Geissler, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Chen, H.; Heilmaier, M.; Nielsch, K.
2019. DPG-Frühjahrstagung der Sektion Kondensierte Materie (SKM), Fachverband Metall- und Materialphysik (2019), Regensburg, Germany, March 31–April 5, 2019
High-pressure torsion driven mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy
Kilmametov, A.; Kulagin, R.; Mazilkin, A.; Seils, S.; Boll, T.; Heilmaier, M.; Hahn, H.
2019. Scripta materialia, 158, 29–33. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.08.031
Model-compatible description of the temperature-dependent strength of ferritic and austenitic ODS steels
Seils, S.; Hinrichs, F.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2018, September. MSE Materials Science and Engineering-Konferenz, Darmstadt, 26. - 28.09.2018
Model-compatible description of the temperature dependent strength of ferritic and austenitic ODS steels
Seils, S.; Hinrichs, F.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2018, September. Materials Science and Engineering Congress (MSE 2018), Darmstadt, Germany, September 26–28, 2018
Atom Probe Tomography as a Tool to Analyze Outward Diffusion Through Al203 on FeAlCr
Recalde, O.; Heilmaier, M.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.
2018, September. Annual Congress of the European Federation of Corrosion (EUROCORR 2018), Krakow, Poland, September 9–13, 2018
Ordering in Al-containing Refractory High Entropy Alloys Analyzed by Complemental Microstructure Characterization Techniques
Seils, S.; Chen, H.; Szabo, D. V.; Harding, I.; Kumar, S.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2018. Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (2018), Gaithersburg, MD, USA, June 10–15, 2018
Austenitic Nanoclustered ODS Steels for High Temperature Applications
Seils, S.; Schliephake, D.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2018. Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy (2018), Gaithersburg, MD, USA, June 10–15, 2018
Austenitic nano-clustered ODS steels for high temperature applications
Seils, S.; Frauke, H.; Boll, T.; Kauffmann, A.; Heilmaier, M.
2017. 7th European Atom Probe Workshop, Fiskebäckskil/Schweden, 02.-05.10.2017
Adaption of metal injection molding to quinary high entropy alloys
Grimonprez, A.; Chen, Y.; Kauffmann, A.; Piotter, V.; Wagner, J.; Heilmaier, M.
2017. TMS Conference, San Diego, CA, 26.02. - 02.03.2017
Nanostructure evolution in ODS steels under ion irradiation
Rogozhkin, S.; Bogachev, A.; Korchuganova, O.; Nikitin, A.; Orlov, N.; Aleev, A.; Zaluzhnyi, A.; Kozodaev, M.; Kulevoy, T.; Chalykh, B.; Lindau, R.; Hoffmann, J.; Möslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.; Klimenkov, M.; Heilmaier, M.; Wagner, J.; Seils, S.
2016. Nuclear materials and energy, 9, 66–74. doi:10.1016/j.nme.2016.06.011
Microstructure and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of a new Al-containing refractory high-entropy alloy Nb-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al
Chen, H.; Kauffmann, A.; Gorr, B.; Schliephake, D.; Seemüller, C.; Wagner, J. N.; Christ, H.-J.; Heilmaier, M.
2016. Journal of alloys and compounds, 661, 206–215. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.11.050
Modeling of the temperature dependent Deformation of ODS steels
Seils, S.; Hinrichs, F.; Selle, H.; Schliephake, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Heilmaier, M.
2016. DGM-Fachausschuss Intermetallische Phasen, 04.-05.04.2016, Erlangen
Formation and development of nanoclusters in ODS steels and their influence on mechanical properties
Seils, S.; Schliephake, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Heilmaier, M.
2016. APT&M-Konferenz 2016, Gyeongju/Süd-Korea, 12.-17.06.2016
Comparison of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of ferritic and austenitic ODS steels
Seils, S.; Hinrichs, F.; Selle, H.; Schliephake, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Heilmaier, M.
2016. 3rd ODISSEUS ODS Workshop, Dresden, 19.-22.04.2016
In Situ Study of the Influence of Nickel on the Phase Transformation Kinetics in Austempered Ductile Iron
Saal, P.; Meier, L.; Li, X.; Hofmann, M.; Hoelzel, M.; Wagner, J. N.; Volk, W.
2016. Metallurgical and materials transactions / A, 47 (2), 661–671. doi:10.1007/s11661-015-3261-1
In-situ neutron diffraction during biaxial deformation
Van Petegem, S.; Wagner, J.; Panzner, T.; Upadhyay, M. V.; Trang, T. T. T.; Van Swygenhoven, H.
2016. Acta Materialia, 105, 404–416. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2015.12.015
Thermal stability of ferritic and austenitic nanocluster containing ODS steels
Seils, S.; Schliephake, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Bruder, E.; Janda, D.; Wagner, J. N.; Heilmaier, M.
2015. 12th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Materials (ICM 2015), Karlsruhe, Germany, May 10–14, 2015
Ferrtic and austenitic nanocluster containing ODS steels for high temperature applications
Seils, S.; Schliephake, D.; Kauffmann, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Heilmaier, M.
2015. European APT Workshop, Leoben, A, October 6-9, 2015
Early cluster formation during rapid cooling of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy: In situ small-angle X-ray scattering
Schloth, P.; Menzel, A.; Fife, J. L.; Wagner, J. N.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; J.-M. Drezet
2015. Scripta materialia, 108, 56–59. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.06.015
An APT investigation of an amorphous Cr-B-C thin film
Boll, T.; Thuvander, M.; Koch, S.; Wagner, J. N.; Nedfors, N.; Jansson, U.; Stiller, K.
2015. Ultramicroscopy, 159 (2), 217–222. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.01.001